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Increasingly, philosophers are arguing that while our behavior towardsanimals is indeed subject to moral scrutiny, the kinds of ethicalarguments that are usually presented frame the issues in the wrongway. Some philosophers suggest that rational argumentation fails tocapture those features of moral experience that allow us to really seewhy treating animals badly is wrong. The point, according tocommentators such as Stephen R.L. Clark and Cora Diamond, for example,is that members of our communities, however we conceive of them, pullon us and it is in virtue of this pull that we recognize what is wrongwith cruelty. Animals are individuals with whom we share a common lifeand this recognition allows us to see them as they are. Eating animalsis wrong not because it is a violation of the animal’s rights orbecause on balance such an act creates more suffering than other acts,but rather because in eating animals or using them in other harmful,violent ways, we do not display the traits of character that kind,sensitive, compassionate, mature, and thoughtful members of a moralcommunity should display.

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Tylor hypothesized that animism was the foundation of all religions.

This response is not unlike that of noted animal rights proponent, TomRegan, who argues that what is important for moral consideration arenot the differences between humans and non-humans but thesimilarities. Regan argues that because persons share with certainnon-persons (which includes those humans and non-humans who have acertain level of organized cognitive function) the ability to beexperiencing subject of a life and to have an individual welfare thatmatters to them regardless of what others might think, both deservemoral consideration. Regan argues that subjects of a life:

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If a man shoots his dog because the animal is no longer capable ofservice, he does not fail in his duty to the dog, for the dog cannotjudge, but his act is inhuman and damages in himself that humanitywhich it is his duty to show towards mankind. If he is not to stiflehis human feelings, he must practice kindness towards animals, for hewho is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men.([1784–5] 1997: 212 [Ak 27: 459])

Although Tylor did not invent the concept of animism, he gave it added scope.
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animism and alphabet Essay - 537 Words - StudyMode

In sum, the animal rights position takes the significance of morallyconsiderable claims to be absolute. Thus, any use of animals thatinvolves a disregard for their moral claims is problematic. Thesignificance of an animal’s morally considerable interestsaccording to a utilitarian is variable. Whether an action is morallyjustified or permissible will depend on a number of factors. Theutilitarian position on animals would condemn a large number ofpractices that involve the suffering and death of billions of animals,but there are cases in which some use of non-human animals, andperhaps even human animals, may be morally justified (Gruen 2011: ch.4; Gilbert, Kaebnick, & Murray 2012).

Imprint: Sidestone Press | Format: 182x257mm | 142 pp. |  | Language: English | 6 illus. (bw) | Category: anthropology, religion, animism|

Essay on A Summary of David Abram’s Animism and …

Importantly, the utilitarian argument for the moral significance ofanimal suffering in meat production is not an argument forvegetarianism. If an animal lived a happy life and was painlesslykilled and then eaten by people who would otherwise suffer hunger ormalnutrition by not eating the animal, then painlessly killing andeating the animal would be the morally justified thing to do. In manyparts of the world where economic, cultural, or climate conditionsmake it virtually impossible for people to sustain themselves on plantbased diets, killing and eating animals that previously led relativelyunconstrained lives and are painlessly killed, would not be morallyobjectionable. The utilitarian position can thus avoid certain chargesof cultural chauvinism and moralism, charges that the animal rightsposition apparently cannot avoid.

When we encounter an animal in pain we recognize their claim on us,and thus beings who can suffer are morally considerable.

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I began to see [my attitudes] that related to my conception offlesh-foods as unnecessary, greedy, self-indulgent, childish, myattitude to shopping and cooking in order to produce lavish dinnerparties as parochial, gross, even dissolute. I saw my interest anddelight in nature programmes about the lives of animals on televisionand my enjoyment of meat as side by side at odds with oneanother…Without thinking animals had rights, I began to seeboth the wild ones and the ones we usually eat as having lives oftheir own, which they should be left to enjoy. And so I changed. Myperception of the moral landscape and where I and the other animalswere situated in it shifted. (Hursthouse 2000: 165–166; see alsoDiamond 2001 [especially chs. 11 and 13], and Clarke 1977)