The expert have for years sought to discover the root cause of crime.

Lombroso is considered the 'father' of modern criminology. Williams (2004) argues that this is a reasonable claim because Lombroso's work influenced the study of crime and the criminal through a scientific approach using direct empirical evidence and careful analysis. Lombroso was a doctor who became a specialist in psychiatry and was a professor of legal medicine at the University of Turin (Vold, Bernard and Snipes, 1998). Lombroso studied the cadavers of executed criminals and, in his book The Criminal Man (1876), he argued that criminals are biological reversions to an earlier stage of evolution and thus are more primitive and less evolved than law-abiding individuals. He used the term 'atavistic' to describe offenders and claimed that research proves them to be physically different from people of conventional values and behaviour (Lilly, Cullen and Ball, 2002). Lombroso identified the criminals' physical abnormalities as unusually shaped jaws, ears and noses, excessively long arms and an abundance of wrinkles (an ape-like appearance).

People often fail to examine causes when it comes to crime

From a positivistic perspective, deviance is based on biological or social determinism.


This paper is devoted to matters of crime theories and their relation to psychological and social factors. At the very beginning we should stop at the definition of the criminology in general, according to one of the scholars of American criminology, Edwin H. Sutherland, criminology is a body of knowledge that considered crime as a social phenomenon. This is not only the process of making laws, this is as well the process of breaking them, reaction to the breaking of the laws. These three components form the special sequence of events.

The classical school does little to address the causes of crime

People working with this sphere are called criminologists, they study the social and behavioral sciences. They study the methods of crimes, the characteristics of criminals, victims and circumstances of the crimes. There is a number of theories of crime, some of them are simple, and some are more complex. Most of these theories concentrate on specific type of behavior and on learning the causes for this type of behavior. The theories help us to gain some basic knowledge about the nature of crimes and criminals, and they are certainly not able to answer all questions in all cases, but still they are important for understanding the phenomenon of crime. There is a great number of such theories, for example: psychological theory, disorganization – ecological theory, anomie-strain theory, learning theory, control theory, labeling theory, radical conflict theory, feminist theory, integrated theory, biological theory and so on. Further on we are going to concentrate upon the last one – the biological theory.

The historical and intellectual background of the biological theory of crime causation

The biosocial or biological theory ..

I propose that the debate of nature versus nurture now is not whether genetics or environment influence behavior, but how complex the interaction between these factors is.Despite the relative lack of reliability and validity in twin, adoption, and family studies, they still provide valuable insight into the roles of heredity and environment in criminal behavior.

The theory groups are Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Systems, Biological and Behavioral.

Free biological theories papers, ..

Biological and genetic processes are believed to underlie many of the individual traits associated with persistent criminal conduct. Personality factors, such as neuroticism, mental disorders, and deficiencies in self-regulation have all been associated with biological and genetic functioning. Biological differences between individuals also help to explain why people exposed to similar environments, such as poverty, develop along different trajectories. That is, biology appears to make some individuals susceptible to certain environmental conditions while protecting others. In certain limited instances, biological factors may explain the behaviors of some individuals, such as psychopaths, but in most instances biological processes interact and correlate with environmental conditions. Commonly referred to as “gene X environment interactions” and “gene by environment correlates,” these processes highlight the complexity of human development in general, and criminal behavior specifically.

In Iowa, the first adoption study was conducted that looked at the genetics of criminal behavior.

What are the Biological Theories of Crime?

It also highlighted the importance of looking into peoples genetic make-up as research such as Brunners' research into the extra 'Y' chromosome which led to the idea that genetic defects in a family can cause abnormal behaviours and also the Twin and Adoptions studies that showed a correlation between genetics and crime....

Biological positivism locates the causes of crime within the individual's physical makeup;

Biological theories of crime | Buy Custom Essay

If environment affects the regulation of gene expression and, in turn, the activity of neurotransmitters that modulate behavior, this kind of interaction may be a significant factor in the development of criminal and antisocial behavior.Jones's argument regarding the extent to which environmental and genetic factors influence antisocial and criminal behavior in childhood versus adulthood seems somewhat incomplete.