Martin Luther King Jr and The Civil Rights Movement

This example of the reluctance of the Civil Rights Movement to properly recognize the contributions of black women was just one of many in which black women were expected to maintain the status quo as it related to gender. From the movement's inception, black women were at the forefront, organizing communities, church congregations, and Civil Rights organizations. However, despite such committed involvement to improving the conditions of black Americans, black female movement participants encountered sexist treatment from their black male counterparts and mainstream society.

He is the father of the modern civil rights movement, Dr.

Ferguson is in fact backdrop for the Civil Rights Movement, but I disagree.

"Voices from the Southern Civil Rights Movement"

One of the primary goals of American Civil Rights Movement was to ensure that African Americans get adequate economic opportunities and achieve economic equality. The 1963 March on Washington was a march aiming to achieve “Jobs and Freedom.” Indeed, the black-white unemployment gap seems to have emerged around twenty years prior to the movement, in the 1940s. Analysis of the primary source, U.S. Census data, for different years in the 1940s, allows us to see that the two-to-one gap in employment of white and black workforce was persistent. Analysis of another primary source, Bureau of Labor Statistics data for 1954 allows us to see that the black rate of unemployment was 4.9% higher than the white one (9.9% to only 5%), i.e. almost twice as high.

Success was a big part of the Civil Rights Movement.

While Rustin and other March organizers attempted to pacify the women by offering them seats on the platform, some male leaders supported the demand for direct women's representation in the March (Height, 2001). However, those leaders did not force the issue. According to Pauli Murray, who served as a consultant to John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, "It wasbitterly humiliating for Negro Women...to [be]...accorded...token recognition in the historic March...The omission was deliberate" (Height, 2001, p. 90). Murray was not surprised by the reluctance of March organizers (mostly men) to allow women a speaking platform in the March. Since the movement's inception, men were socially expected to take on formal leadership roles. Although disappointed by the attitudes of March organizers, black women fully supported the March "because we felt it would strike a major blow against racism" (Height, 2001, p.88). Black women, who held dual oppressive positions in society as black and female, often felt they had to choose of which battle to be a part. During this time in U.S. history, black women felt the race issue was most significant and supported the Civil Rights struggle despite experiences of marginalization and sexism (Standley, 1990).

Second, the civil rights movement broadened the concept of leadership to include women.
The civil rights movement in the 1950’s and 60’s was a monumental event in American history.

Martin Luther King, Jr., the Leader of the Civil Rights Movement

During the Civil Rights Movement, it was said to be a time full of violence and brutality; however, many African-Americans pulled through in their time of struggle....

They fought to earn their civil rights which is where the movement got its name from.

The civil rights movement grows.

The SCLC was a Civil Rightsorganization run mostly by black ministers and did not encourage substantivefemale leadership involvement. More about the SCLC will be discussed in laterchapters.

The Civil Rights Movement consisted of black people in the south fighting for equal rights.

The Civil Rights Movement :: Black Civil Rights Movement

Inaddition to having a preexisting communications network, which is open toaddressing new ideas within the movement and a crisis to transpire themovement, the last precondition of movement formation is having "a subsequentorganizing effort to weld the spontaneous groups together into a movement"(Freeman, 1983, p. 22). No social movement can exist if fragmented organizedgroups do not communicate their desire to present a united front. The inabilityto come to a consensus on how to define and achieve the movement's purposes andgoals will prevent the movement's progression and very little, if any, socialchange will occur. The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) wassignificant in the organization of the Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964, inwhich college students (mostly white and Northern) came to Mississippi toassist with voter education projects and campaigns. COFO consisted of a fewCivil Rights organizations such as the Student Nonviolent CoordinatingCommittee (SNCC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the NationalAssociation for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and represented theimportance of organizing on a national scale to accomplish political projects(Dittmer, 2000). The aforementioned organizations were unified with regard toFreedom Summer's goals, but they also recruited participants similarly wheregender was concerned. Female applicants were more likely to be rejected forparticipation despite having previous Civil Rights activism experience, whichwas considered a major selection criterion. During interviews, women were askedabout sex and comments were made on their physical attractiveness (Kuumba,2001). Men were accepted more readily and were not complimented on theirphysical attractiveness. This is an example of how gender played a role in animportant Civil Rights campaign.