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It has been said, and we think justly, that the third act of Othello and the three first acts of LEAR, are Shakespear's great master-pieces in the logic of passion: that they contain the highest examples not only of the force of individual passion, but of its dramatic vicissitudes and striking effects arising from the different circumstances and char-acters of the persons speaking. We see the ebb and flow of the feeling, its pauses and feverish starts, its impatience of opposition, its accumulating force when it has time to recollect ifself, the manner in which it avails itself of every passing word or gesture, its haste to repel insinuation, the alternate contraction and dilatation of the soul, and all "the dazzling fence of controversy" in this mortal combat with poisoned weapons, aimed at the heart, where each wound is fatal. We have seen in Othello, how the unsuspecting frankness and impetuous passions of the Moor are played upon and exasperated by the artful dexterity of Iago. In the present play, that which aggravates the sense of sympathy in the reader, and of uncontroulable anguish in the swoln heart of Lear, is the petrifying indifference, the cold, calculating, obdurate selfishness of his daughters. His keen passions seem whetted on their stony hearts. The contrast would be too painful, the shock too great, but for the intervention of the Fool, whose well-timed levity comes in to break the continuity of feeling when it can no longer be borne, and to bring into play again the fibres of the heart just as they are growing rigid from over-strained excitement. The imagination is glad to take refuge in the half-comic, half-serious comments of the Fool, just as the mind under the extreme anguish of a surgical operation vents itself in sallies of wit. The character was also a grotesque ornament of the barbarous times, in which alone the tragic ground-work of the story could be laid. In another point of view it is indis-pensable, inasmuch as while it is a diversion to the too great intensity of our disgust, it carries the pathos to the highest pitch of which it is capable, by showing the pitiable weakness of the old king's conduct and its irretrievable consequences in the most familiar point of view. Lear may well "beat at the gate which let his folly in," after, as the Fool says, "he has made his daughters his mothers." The character is dropped in the third act to make room for the entrance of Edgar as Mad Tom, which well accords with the increasing bustle and wildness of the incidents; and nothing can be more complete than the distinction between Lear's real and Edgar's assumed madness, while the resemblance in the cause of their distresses, from the severing of the nearest ties of natural affection, keeps up a unity of interest. Shakespear's mastery over his subject, if it was not art, was owing to a knowledge of the connecting links of the passions, and their effect upon the mind, still more wonderful than any systematic adherence to rules, and that anticipated and outdid all the efforts of the most refined art, not inspired and rendered instinctive by genius. One of the most perfect displays of dramatic power is the first interview between Lear and his daughter, after the designed affronts upon him, which, till one of his knights reminds him of them, his sanguine temperament had led him to overlook. He returns with his train from hunting, and his usual impatience breaks out in his first words, "Let me not stay a jot for dinner; go, get it ready." He then encounters the faithful Kent in disguise, and retains him in his service; and the first trial of his honest duty is to trip up the heels of the officious Steward who makes so prominent and despicable a figure through the piece. On the entrance of Gonerill the following dialogue takes place:
A RE-READING OF EDMUND IN SHAKESPEARE'S "KING LEAR"
At the beginning of the play King Lear is an old, foolish man.
William Shakespeare has single handedly captured and embraced this necessary feeling and has allowed us to view in on it through the characters in his two masterpieces, Othello and King Lear.
Such are the horrid outcomes of the characters in King Lear.
In the midst of the sweeping tragedy of Othello, Iago's one moment of generosity is often overlooked. Othello, After hearing Cassio speaking of his relationship with Bianca and believing him to be speaking of a relationship with Desdemona, and after seeing Desdemona's handkerchief in Cassio's possession, resolves that he must kill her and cries out with the horror of the thought, "But yet the pity of it, Iago! O Iago, the pity of it, Iago!" (Othello, IV.i. 195-6 ) Iago's response is noteworthy, as it is the only time in the entire scene that he does not spur Othello to greater suspicion and greater wrath: "If you are so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend, for if it touch not you, it comes near nobody" (IV.i.197-200). In these three strange lines, Iago offers Othello the solution to the entire play. He tells him point-blank that the power lies with him to put an end to all his torment, to all his suspicion, to all the tragic arc of the tale by simply giving nature the freedom to run its course. If Othello, he suggests, once stands outside the structures of law and custom, to offer indulgence, or at the very least understanding, to the natural promptings of men and women in the natural order of the universe as God created it, there need be no killing nor even an end to his love or to his happiness. Othello, however, cannot in this moment see the path of liberation offered to him and with the words "I will chop her into messes. Cuckold me!" (IV.i.201) commits himself to the code of civilization, to the honor killing it demands, and thus to the destruction of everyone.