Essay about Do Animals Have Language? - 1417 Words
Do animals have language essays - CUBAN SOUL …
As a side note, there has been a debate, ongoing since the early1990s (Cavalieri and Singer 1994) about whether great apes deservespecial legal protection amounting to ‘human rights’. Thecrux of the debate is not whether the great apes have consciousnessper se (this seems to be assumed by most participants of the debate,on both sides), but whether they have . Personhood isa vexed notion, but is generally thought to be related to certainforms of agency and self awareness, and is often thought to be tightlycoupled to moral status, as reflected in this debate (DeGrazia 1997;SEP article on Moral Status of Animals; Varner 2012). Though notessential to phenomenal consciousness, personhood is often thought topresuppose consciousness, and so perhaps is best thought of as a levelof elaboration or complexity of consciousness.
systems of animals do not have this kind ..
Gallup (1970) developed an experimental test of mirrorself-recognition that has become widely used as a test ofself-awareness, although interpretation of the test remainscontroversial (see the section on below). Gallup argues that the performance of chimpanzees in this testindicates that they are self-aware, and that animals that fail thetest lack self-awareness. Further, foreshadowing Carruthers, Gallupargues that self-awareness — in the sense of being able to thinkabout one's own mental states — is required for having a mind,and therefore that animals that ‘fail’ the mirror testhave no minds (1982, 1985). Though there has been controversy overjust which animals ‘pass’ the validity of versions of the test modified for use with elephants, dolphins,and magpies has been challenged — as of 2002, Gallup maintained that there was evidence thathumans, common chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans consistently passthe test, and strong evidence that a wide range of other primates failconsistently fail. He took this to support the claim thatself-awareness is unique to great apes (Gallup et al. 2002). Combinedwith his earlier arguments that consciousness requires the sort ofself-awareness measured by the mirror test, this would imply thatconsciousness is unique to the great apes.