English essay on civils of war - Antifragil
Free Essays on Role Of English In Civils
The Civil War in Sudan, which began in June 1983, has caused a numbers of social, cultural and economical problems for Sudan. Many social changes took place, not only in the southern Sudan, where the war has been fought since its inception, but also in the Sudanese Nation as a whole. In this contribution, I would like to give a short summary about the effect of the war on the Sudanese society, in general, and on youth and children, in particular. This is important, because youth and children are the future of every nation. Because the youth and children in southern Sudan are gravely affected by the current war, this article will specifically address these effects. Youth and children in the North of the country are, however, almost equally affected by the conflict. After discussing historical background of Sudan and its political and developmental condition, I will briefly summarize the social situation and the role of social work in Sudan during and after the conflict.
Causes of Civil War in Africa | Gavin Raymond - …
The British proposed that South Sudan should be annexed to Northern Sudan or to another East African country, such as Kenya or Uganda. In the end, Egypt managed to persuade the British to give Northern Sudan free hand over the South. In 1946, England decided that the South was to be one state with North Sudan. The South was informed of this decision during the Juba conference in 1947. The Sudanisation was initiated. A 93 member assembly was founded to oversee the process of independence and constitutional arrangement. Southern representatives were, however, against this annexation. They set several conditions in order to agree with the annexations such as the introduction of a Federal or Confederal constitution for the Sudan. Northern representatives agreed to the demands of the South. Nevertheless, the North did not keep its promise to the South. Only 13 out of the 93 vacancies in the assembly were given to the South. The rest was occupied by the North. “A committee of British and Egyptians, with only Northern Sudanese as consultants, discussed the steps to self-rule. In the legislative assembly the safeguards were withdrawn. The next step after the establishment of self-government was to establish a Sudanization committee. They identified 943 posts that the British and the Egyptians had to give up. Only 6 positions were given to the South and 928 to the North” (Alier 2001, p.1-3). British Army officers in both the South and the North were replaced by Northern Sudanese. Only a few junior positions were delegated to Southern Sudanese. The Southern Army in the South was dissatisfied with their representation. On August 18, 1955, they began rebelled against the Northern Officers stationed in the South. More than 1000 Northern and Southern Sudanese died in the uprising. The response of the Sudan government was decisive. More mutineers were arrested, imprisoned and some were executed. So began the first civil war between the South and the North. The government in Khartoum blamed Christian Missionaries for the preaching Christianity in the South and for deepening the differences between Muslims and Christians (Alier 2001). Government officials in Khartoum felt as though missionaries were an obstacle to islamization and arabization” (Alier 2001, p.2). As result, the Government in Khartoum introduced an Islamic curriculum and Islamic preachers as well as an Islamic administration in the South in 1959, with the aims and objectives to correct the system introduced in the South by the western world, particularly by the missionaries and the British. Meanwhile, the mutiny in the South developed itself into civil war, which was finally brought to an end after 17 years of war. In 1972 the Addis Ababa Agreement was signed. The South was guaranteed a self-rule within the united Sudan. The islamization of the South was stopped; the English language was re-introduced as the official language in the South. Southern people were made responsible for the administration of their parts of the country. They received the right to make their laws, and the South had its own autonomous parliament in Juba. With the Addis Ababa Agreement, Sudan lived in peace for almost 12 years. There was progress in all aspects in both North and South. Schools and universities as well as institutions of higher education were opened in the South.