THE RESPONSE ESSAY An earth without animals - …
THE RESPONSE ESSAY An earth without animals ..
A variety of carefulexperimental work with animals shows impressive abilities forintegrated what-where-when memory — the ability to recalldetails of an event together with its location and time. This work waspioneered by Clayton and colleagues with scrub jays, focusing on theircaching behavior — wherein the birds bury food and later recoverit (Clayton et al. 2003). For example, if scrub jays are preventedfrom recovering their caches for long enough, they will recover onlynonperishable items (peanuts, in the study), ignoring their caches ofotherwise preferred but perishable food (mealworms, in the study)(Clayton et al. 2003). Recent work has also documented what isreferred to as ‘episodic-like memory’ in rats (Crystal2009), and the apparent ability to plan for the future (including innovel ways that are not plausible ruled out as ‘mereinstinct’) in several animals, including nonhuman primates,birds, rats and other mammals (Feeney et al. 2011 for an example ofrecent experimental work; see Roberts 2012 for a review anddiscussion).
Do Animals Have Language Essay Example for Free
Systematic study of self-consciousness and theory of mind in nonhumananimals has roots in an approach to the study of self-consciousnesspioneered by Gallup (1970). Gallup's rationale for linkingmirror-self recognition to self-awareness has already been discussedabove. The idea for the experiment came from observations well-knownto comparative psychologists that chimpanzees would, after a period ofadjustment, use mirrors to inspect their own images. Gallup usedthese observations to develop a widely-replicated protocol thatappears to allow a scientific determination of whether it is merelythe mirror image per se that is the object of interest to theanimal inspecting it, or whether it is the image qua proxy for theanimal itself that is the object of interest. Taking chimpanzees whohad extensive prior familiarity with mirrors, Gallup anesthetized hissubjects and marked their foreheads with a distinctive dye, or, in acontrol group, anesthetized them only. Upon waking, marked animals whowere allowed to see themselves in a mirror touched their own foreheadsin the region of the mark significantly more frequently than controlswho were either unmarked or not allowed to look into a mirror.