Jaya terus Linda Flower Jombang!!
In tracing the origin of the autonomous text, Olson (1977) describes how oral "utterances"—with their reliance on the wide range of contextual cues available in face-to-face encounters—were transformed into increasingly explicit written "texts." Olson notes that oral traditions did not assume that meaning was "in" the text. Rather, oral literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey was laced with mnemonic devices whose main purpose was to aid the memory of the speaker, not to convey explicit meaning. Also, due to the limits of memory, speakers had to rely on contextual clues (e.g., visual cues, gestures, intonation) and the prior knowledge of audiences to bring out the full meaning of oral texts. With the development of writing, oral statements could be stored as permanent artifacts, but the first written texts were far from autonomous: because early pictographic, phonetic, and syllabic systems did not attempt to replicate the sound patterns of speech, they could not be mapped onto spoken language exactly. It was not until the Greeks' refinement of a phonetic alphabet that writing could finally represent speech more or less exactly, but even then written texts did not immediately shed all the conventions of the oral tradition. The construction of fully explicit texts required not only semiotic innovations but also conscious efforts to eliminate implicit premises and the potential for idiosyncratic interpretations. Such explicitness emerged, according to Olson, from two main developments: the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century and the essayist technique adopted by the Royal Society of London in the seventeenth century. Because printing made texts available to wider, more diverse audiences, it became less plausible to assume that readers would share contexts and prior knowledge. Thus, the need for greater explicitness became imperative. Later, members of the Royal Society of London came to view writing as a method for establishing and consolidating objective scientific knowledge. They advocated a fully explicit style in order to preserve scientific knowledge and make it equally available to all readers for all time. This technique, which Olson argues still characterizes scientific writing in particular and academic writing more generally, charged writers with making textual meaning fully explicit and required readers to determine meaning through logical analysis of words on the page.
“Writing for an Audience” | Disneyland
Linda Flower’s discussion of revising writer-based ..
We had no plan or agenda for success and this isprobably why we so easily parted, Pamela off to Greece with her Poetand me off to India to write two albums of music for Maharishi MaheshYogi, just as the Beatles took their leave.
the essay by Linda Flowers “Writing for ..
Bobby Darin -- who'd given both Roger McGuinn andJesse Colin Young valuable breaks when those future stars were unknown-- made the Top Ten with a cover of Tim Hardin's "If I Were aCarpenter." Dion -- who, it's worth noting, had made his own prettyrespectable, almost wholly overlooked forays into folk-rock in themid-1960s on Columbia with Bob Dylan producer Tom Wilson -- had a hugehit with "Abraham, Martin, & John." And John Stewart, who'd justcome to the end of a long run with the waning Kingston Trio, was --almost uniquely among his fellow early-'60s folk revival stars --reborn as a critically respected singer-songwriter in the late 1960sand 1970s.
His first album under his new persona, however, wasa bit of an awkward baby step into the brave new world.