Jaya terus Linda Flower Jombang!!

In tracing the origin of the autonomous text, Olson (1977) describes how oral "utterances"—with their reliance on the wide range of contextual cues available in face-to-face encounters—were transformed into increasingly explicit written "texts." Olson notes that oral traditions did not assume that meaning was "in" the text. Rather, oral literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey was laced with mnemonic devices whose main purpose was to aid the memory of the speaker, not to convey explicit meaning. Also, due to the limits of memory, speakers had to rely on contextual clues (e.g., visual cues, gestures, intonation) and the prior knowledge of audiences to bring out the full meaning of oral texts. With the development of writing, oral statements could be stored as permanent artifacts, but the first written texts were far from autonomous: because early pictographic, phonetic, and syllabic systems did not attempt to replicate the sound patterns of speech, they could not be mapped onto spoken language exactly. It was not until the Greeks' refinement of a phonetic alphabet that writing could finally represent speech more or less exactly, but even then written texts did not immediately shed all the conventions of the oral tradition. The construction of fully explicit texts required not only semiotic innovations but also conscious efforts to eliminate implicit premises and the potential for idiosyncratic interpretations. Such explicitness emerged, according to Olson, from two main developments: the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century and the essayist technique adopted by the Royal Society of London in the seventeenth century. Because printing made texts available to wider, more diverse audiences, it became less plausible to assume that readers would share contexts and prior knowledge. Thus, the need for greater explicitness became imperative. Later, members of the Royal Society of London came to view writing as a method for establishing and consolidating objective scientific knowledge. They advocated a fully explicit style in order to preserve scientific knowledge and make it equally available to all readers for all time. This technique, which Olson argues still characterizes scientific writing in particular and academic writing more generally, charged writers with making textual meaning fully explicit and required readers to determine meaning through logical analysis of words on the page.

“Writing for an Audience” | Disneyland

In this case, the writer uses the death of their father as an example of that major incident.

Linda Flower’s discussion of revising writer-based ..

We had no plan or agenda for success and this isprobably why we so easily parted, Pamela off to Greece with her Poetand me off to India to write two albums of music for Maharishi MaheshYogi, just as the Beatles took their leave.

the essay by Linda Flowers “Writing for ..

Bobby Darin -- who'd given both Roger McGuinn andJesse Colin Young valuable breaks when those future stars were unknown-- made the Top Ten with a cover of Tim Hardin's "If I Were aCarpenter." Dion -- who, it's worth noting, had made his own prettyrespectable, almost wholly overlooked forays into folk-rock in themid-1960s on Columbia with Bob Dylan producer Tom Wilson -- had a hugehit with "Abraham, Martin, & John." And John Stewart, who'd justcome to the end of a long run with the waning Kingston Trio, was --almost uniquely among his fellow early-'60s folk revival stars --reborn as a critically respected singer-songwriter in the late 1960sand 1970s.

His first album under his new persona, however, wasa bit of an awkward baby step into the brave new world.

To further this point then, he again adds another example of students writing.
"Wrier-Based Prose: A Cognitive Basis for Promblems in Writng." Flower, Linda.

Buy Language Awareness : Readings for College Writers 8th edition ..

Second, freewriting encourages critical thinking by offering a larger view on a given topic than what is offered by academic writing (Elbow, Pre/Text 8-9). If one is more involved in what they are reading, then the tendency to analyze the feelings fostered by this involvement is much stronger, than if one were to only understand every other word of some technical paper. Elbow states, "personal expressive writing is often more clearly attentive to an audience and its views than we see in much academic writing—where writers often slide into a glassy-eyed stance of talking to everyone but not really connecting to anyone" (Pre/Text 10). This is especially true with college freshmen, because if the student is even remotely interested in the topic at hand, then the written response to that topic is bound to be more interesting. It seems that many students at this age are more interested in subjects that revolve around socializing, rather than topics that center around self-introspection.

Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes.

27/08/2013 · Writing for an Audience reinforces the ..

Is the audience likely to agree or disagree with you? It's important to think about this before you begin writing, so you can write in a way that appeals to your audience. Sometimes you will be addressing an audience that agrees with you, so you'll be emphasizing why their point of view is a productive or beneficial one, and perhaps arguing in favor of a course of action or particular outcome. You'll want to reinforce their opinion, but try to avoid flattery or excessive compliments, since this can make you sound insincere.

•A Grounded Theory Approach for Studying Writing and Literacy.•Analytic Strategies for the Study of Digital Writing, 2012.

"Writing for an Audience" by Linda Flower.

As there are many ways to organize freewritings and to use them to foster critical thinking skills, there are just as many different approaches of teaching these organizational and critical skills with freewriting. Peter Elbow and Lynn Hammond both use freewriting in their classes in similar manners. Elbow went through three bouts of teaching before settling on the style he uses today. The first bout occurred during his graduate year at M.I.T. where he "simply tried to imitate the good teachers (he had) had—to be Socrates and a good guy at the same time" (Embracing Contraries 67). After teaching in this manner for five years, he went through a "why should I tell them anything if they don't ask me questions" stage, in which he taught his classes (sophomore level) based on a three step system. First the students had to state on paper three times during the year what the expected to learn or what they had learned. Each student pursued his/her own goals with only constraints of reality to steer their learning. Second, all students read either a work of literature, or something about literature each week, and third, they all had to write something on paper and put it in a box where all the other students could read it and make comments (Contraries 71). This process sounds similar to our e-mail usage in 5360. Finally, after becoming fed up with the above two methods of teaching, Elbow embraced his first and second order thinking technique. He states that his agenda for the beginning of a semester is "always to enforce generating and brainstorming and the deferral of criticism in order to build students' confidence and show them that they can quickly learn to come up with a great quantity of words and ideas" (Change 40).