Use the menu below to learn more about quoting and paraphrasing.

Use ellipsis points (. . .) to indicate an omission within a quotation--but not at the beginning or end unless it's not obvious that you're quoting only a portion of the whole.

Quoting for any other purpose is counterproductive.

 Integrating a quotation into your text usually involves two elements:

The quotation remains within the body of the paragraph.

Our Dalit source gladly quotes from Macaulay's speech in the House of Commons on 10 July 1833 to show us how he already envisioned India's independence:

How do I use partial quotations to liven up my writing?

The text is titled "The Races of Man" and is quoted to show how Macaulay saw European conquest and Christianization as the twin vectors of a natural and beneficial process:

A signal that a quotation is coming--generally the author's name and/or a reference to the work

(a) In the middle of a sentence

If your quotation is lengthy, you should almost always introduce it with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument. If your quotation is longer than four lines, do not place it in quotation marks. Instead, set it off as a block quotation:

The following offers just one way of introducing the above quotation:

If you need to indicate an error in the original, such as a misspelling, insert the Latin word sic, italicized and enclosed in brackets, immediately after the word concerned. The addition of [sic] assures the reader of the accuracy of the quotation.

(b) At the beginning of a sentence

If you wish to draw attention to specific parts of a quotation, underline or italicize them. The reader must be informed in a footnote, or in parentheses or brackets immediately following the quotation, by means of a phrase such as Italics mine, Underlining mine or My emphasis, that the emphasis was not in the original.

Commas and periods go inside the closing quotation marks; the other punctuation marks go outside.

What if my quotation contains a mistake?

The example above might be a bit wordy, and further revision to the sentence might help the writer find a way to accomplish the same end with fewer words, but the revision at least eliminates the writer's need to make two changes to a short quotation.

An assertion that indicates the relationship of the quotation to your text

My family doesn't have that much time."

Be sure to introduce the author from the source work within the sentence itself and use quotation marks. No comma is necessary to introduce the quoted phrase.

Indent dialogue between characters in a play. Place the speaker's name before the speech quoted:

When you have a quotation within a quotation, handle it this way:

When referring to a word’s form rather than its meaning, use quotation marks to draw the reader’s attention. Usually these words are preceded by terms such as means, marked, specified, as, referred to as, the word, the phrase, entitled and designated. Most writers prefer to place words referred to as such in italics or to underline them rather than to use quotation marks, but consistency in form is the golden rule (see ). Words being defined, French terms and foreign words are set in italics, and their definition or translation is placed in quotation marks: