· Paul Ricoeur, philosopher, born February 27 1913; died May 20 2005
Jaspers. Marcel, Husserl, Heidegger, Gadamer and Freud.
In Marx, the classical, the concept of ideology acquires a sense of in opposition to the one of science. From this point on, the concept of ideology is taken and developed by the Frankfurt school as a source for Positivism Sociology criticism and by the structural Marxism of Louis Althusser.
4. Objection to Ricoeur's Approach
By reading the book by Mannheim, Ricoeur discusses science and ideology and examines some other radical functions for ideology besides the one that contemplates the reality's distortion and dissimulation. Then the use of the analysis on authority by Max Weber is a way to demonstrate the function of integration in the society is recursive in Ricoeur. According to him, this guarantees the identity of the social groups.
Paul Ricoeur (1913—2005) Paul ..
Since the self is an agent the question of its ethical aim arises,allowing Ricoeur to introduce what he calls his “littleethics”. This introduces new predicates for the self and anotherpath toward the self, one that shifts the argument from descriptiontoward prescription. Ricoeur presents this little ethics through whathe calls its ethical intention: “aiming at a good life livedwith and for others in just institutions” (Oneself asAnother, 1992: 172). This formula indicates that there is apriority of ethics (understood as teleological) over morality(understood as normative practice). In fact, the structure isthreefold: the ethical aim has to pass through the sieve of the norm,which is meant to realize the ethical intention, to be applied inspecific situations on the basis of phronesis or practicalwisdom that will apply the norm appropriately. It is also possible toread the sequence backwards: for example, when a disaster, say a newdisease, leads to new normative practices growing out of the responseto it, thereby throwing new light in turn on the ethical intention. Atthe level of relations between a self and nearby or intimate others,the ideal of reciprocity entailed here is best expressed as solicitudethat enables both self-esteem and self-respect on the parts of thoseinvolved. At the level of the distant other or others, the question ofjustice arises and with it new notions of respect and of institutionssuch as the rule of law that establish and help maintain or restore ajust distance between those involved in them. Behind both levels liesthe idea expressed by the golden rule that one ought not do to otherswhat one does not want done to him- or herself. And beyond everyinstitutionalized system of rules lies the transformative possibilityof love which transcends the fragile and provisory practicalmediations established by every ethical system through reinterpretingthe golden rule. Love is a way of responding not just to the limits ofany such system but to the tragic dimension Ricoeur sees as inherentin all human action, which never fully achieves what it intends,another reminder that human freedom is always a finite freedom.