Hauptli’s Supplement on Feinberg’s “Psychological Egoism” [1958]

Even if evolutionary arguments can be met, however, psychologicalegoism faces the problems noted earlier. In response, thepsychological egoist might move to what Gregory Kavka (1986, 64–80)calls “predominant egoism:” we act unselfishly onlyrarely, and then typically where the sacrifice is small and the gainto others is large or where those benefiting are friends, family, orfavorite causes. Predominant egoism is not troubled by the soldiercounter-example, since it allows exceptions; it is not trivial; and itseems empirically plausible. (For other weakened positions, seeLaFollette 1988 and Mercer 2001.)

-Psychological Egoism is a descriptive theory.

Essentially, he believes all persons are selfish, self-interested, and egoistic.

Finally, let’s look at similar table for psychological egoism:

-80 The psychological egoists’ theory undercuts moral education—“moral education is truly successful when it produces persons who are willing to do the right thing and not because it is popular or safe.”An emphasis upon punishment and reward alone actually undercuts rather than truly characterizes moral education.

The egoist says that all of us are necessarily self-regarding.

The psychological egoist might handle apparent cases ofself-sacrifice, not by adopting the trivial version, but rather byclaiming that facts about the self-interest of the agent explain allbehavior. Perhaps as infants we have only self-regarding desires; wecome to desire other things, such as doing our duty, by learning thatthese other things satisfy our self-regarding desires; in time, wepursue the other things for their own sakes.

But the egoist cannot want others to act as he does because this is not in his self-interest.

Psychological Egoism - Term Paper

Injuries have a dramatic impact upon an athlete’s life (Deutsch, 1985), Crossman (1997) interviewed athletic trainers and established that 47% of respondents believed that every injured athlete suffered psychological trauma....

There seem to be a four “arguments” which, on the face of it [], support psychological egoism:

Psychological Egoism | Matt Mullenweg

First, Daniel Batson and colleagues found that increased empathy leadsto increased helping behaviour. One hypothesis is altrustic: empathycauses a non-instrumental desire to help. There are many competingegoistic hypotheses. Empathy might cause an unpleasant experiencethat subjects believe they can stop by helping; or subjects mightthink failing to help in cases of high empathy is more likely to leadto punishment by others, or that helping here is more likely to berewarded by others; or subjects might think this aboutself-administered punishment or reward. In an ingenious series ofexperiments, Batson compared the egoistic hypotheses, one by one,against the altruistic hypothesis. He found that the altruistichypothesis always made superior predictions. Against the unpleasantexperience hypothesis, Batson found that giving high-empathy subjectseasy ways of stopping the experience other than by helping did notreduce helping. Against the punishment by others hypothesis, Batsonfound that letting high-empathy subjects believe that their behaviourwould be secret did not reduce helping. Against the self-administeredreward hypothesis, Batson found that the mood of high-empathy subjectsdepended on whether they believed that help was needed, whether or notthey could do the helping, rather than on whether they helped (and socould self-reward). Against the self-administered punishmenthypothesis, Batson found that making high-empathy subjects believethey would feel less guilt from not helping (by letting them believethat few others had volunteered to help) did not reduce helping.

C. Critique of Psychological Egoism: Confusions in The Arguments For Psychological Egoism:

Free psychological egoism papers, essays, and research papers.

Response to (d): The fourth argument for psychological egoism [pleasure, pain, and moral education] leads to paradox: the way to get happiness is to forget about it and psychological egoists/hedonists can not recognize this.

80-81 Feinberg also points out that psychological egoists confuse two senses of ‘pleasure’:

Essay on Psychological Egoism - 490 Words | Bartleby

Also, the psychological disorders of the direct victims, such as the individuals present at the event, will differ from the emergency workers, the indirect victims, such as family friends and coworkers of the direct victims, or the first responders, which include the media, fire department and police....