Ecologists focus on the constraints to population growth.
Simon is essentially arguing that throughout history technological advances have made it so that natural resource and food production have more than kept up with population growth and demand. He also suggests that human impact on the environment is not as negative as some have claimed. These are important aspects of the IPAT equation: if more population, affluence, and technology do not bring resource scarcity and greater environmental impact, then the equation does not hold. Simon won his bet with Ehrlich (as described in the Wired Magazine reading), so there must be some substance to Simon’s ideas. He was certainly correct that in virtually all cases, natural resources and commodities like food are more plentiful now than in the past, and supply has certainly kept up with demand. What Simon does not mention, and what Ehrlich and his colleagues failed to realize, is that commodity prices are not merely a reflection of overall supply or scarcity. Consider the price of oil. Oil prices in 2016 reached record lows even though oil is absolutely a finite resource. Much of this is due to hydraulic fracturing technologies, which have temporarily increased supply, but at a potentially great environmental price. Thus, when looking at these debates, it is important for us to be able to analyze the evidence and the arguments for ourselves, so that we can avoid making the same mistakes as others may be making.
In the last two centuries, population has skyrocketed.
Thomas Malthus with his book Essay on the Principle of Population.
This suggestion was unmistakably outrageous given the moralitiesof the times (and would doubtless be most controversialtoday).
The Essay on the Principle of Population and other writingsencouraged the first systematic demographic studies and also hada significant influence in several ways:-
In Economics David Ricardo's, "iron law of wages" and theoryof distribution of wealth contain some elements of Malthus'theory.
How can we deal with population growth in the present day.
In spite of this, an examination of the implications inherent in Malthus’ analysis is revealing of some basic assumptions he makes regarding the economic role of women....